The meaning of health has evolved over time. keep with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body’s ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that might be disrupted from time to time by disease. An example of such a definition of health is: “a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to affect physical, biological, psychological, and social stress”. Then in 1948, during a radical departure from previous definitions, the earth Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of “physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”. Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it had been also criticized as being vague, excessively broad and wasn’t construed as measurable. For an extended time, it had been forgot as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as a capability opened the door for self-assessments to become the foremost indicators to gauge the performance of efforts aimed toward improving human health. It also created the prospect for each person to feel healthy, even within the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, and for the re-examination of determinants of health, faraway from the normal approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases.
Generally, the context during which a personal lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life it’s increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. according to the world Health Organization, the foremost determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and thus the person’s individual characteristics and behaviors.
More specifically, key factors that are found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following :
- Income and social status
- Social support networks
- Education and literacy
- Employment/working conditions
- Social environments
- Physical environments
- Personal health practices and coping skills
- Healthy child development
- Biology and genetics
- Health care services
An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and various factors. including lifestyles, environments, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages became a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. a bit like the 1974Lalonde report from Canada the Alameda County Study in California and thus the series of World Health Reports of the earth Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries.